Mohammadpur, Dhaka |

A Study on Problems on Kiwi Cultivation and Marketing at  Solukhumbu District, Nepal

Editor Chief

Published on:

Updated on:

Spread the love

Aavash Adhikari 1*, Sovit Parajuli1, Arjun Subedi1, Purushottam Dhungana1,  Krishna Prasad Thapaliya2 

1Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan, Nepal 2Center for Development Studies and Rural Sociology, Agriculture and Forestry University Rampur,  Chitwan, Nepal

Article history:

Received: 02.08.2021 
Accepted: 14.10.2021 
Published: 31.10.2021 
*Corresponding author: Aavash  Adhikari 

Marketing problems 
Value addition
As a promising high-value fruit crop, Kiwi is getting popularity among Nepalese farmers for having a comparative advantage both in terms of climatic suitability and having export potential. A sound understanding of the problems faced by the Kiwi growers can help concerned authorities devise further plans and programs to further potentiate the production and income from Kiwi cultivation. The research was conducted in Solududhkunda Municipality and Thulung  Dudhkoshi, Nechasalyan Rural Municipality of Solukhumbu district of Nepal, with the objective of ranking the major problems of Kiwi cultivation and marketing in those areas. A  survey research design was used for the study. Primary data for the household survey were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire as well and KII was also used.  Household-level data from 90 households (30 households from each municipality) were sampled using a simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of data. The average area under Kiwi cultivation was found 23 ropani, the average plant per farmer was 198 and the average age of the Kiwi was 2.94 years. 26 % of the respondents have their family members involved in foreign employment and 76% of respondent’s major occupation was found to be agriculture. 65% of the farmers haven’t got any training on Kiwi cultivation and 67% of the farmers haven’t done soil tests of the field. Lack of funds to build cemented T bar pillar was found to be a major problem while lack of knowledge on cultivation practices, lack of quality saplings, and marketing were ranked respectively. Similarly, problems in marketing were found to be: 1. lack of transportation facility,  2. lack of cold storage, 3. lack of knowledge on value addition  and product diversification, 4. untimely payback of money


Kiwi fruit is a new commodity to Nepalese farmers. It’s been just a few years since farmers have adopted commercial Kiwi farming. Kiwi can be grown from 1200-2400  m asl. where fruits like peach, pear, and apricot can be grown. The hilly region of  Nepal has great potential for Kiwi cultivation.  More profitability than other crops, huge potential for the national and international market, medicinal and nutritional value and a  good source of employment are the main reasons behind the motivation of farmers for  Kiwi cultivation. Due to the emigration of youth for trekking businesses foreign employment, the labor shortage is the main problem for growing cereal crops (AKC  Solukhumbu) and hence many hectares of fertile land are kept barren in the mid-hills.  Farmers have started to cultivate Kiwi in such barren land and hence the demand for Kiwi sapling is increasing day by day. 

Kiwi is one of the most traded fresh fruit with  104 exporting and 118 importing countries,  where New Zealand is the largest exporter  (Mani, Kundra, & Haque, 2018). The total area, productive area, production, and yield of Kiwifruit in Nepal are 551ha, 186ha, 719  mt, and 4 mt/ha, respectively (MOAD,  2016/17). Most of the high hills and mountainous regions are substantially potential for Kiwi cultivation, but its cultivation is limited to some districts.  Solukhumbu is one of the districts having a  high potential area for Kiwi production. 

Nepal has adopted Kiwi farming commercially in Ilam since 2007 and in Kavre as well, but it was introduced in Nepal nearly  40 years ago (ICIMOD, 2013). ICIMOD  (International Centre for Integrated  Mountain Development) has been doing its research on Kiwi fruit in Godawari. Kiwi farming, especially in Ilam has spread so rapidly that 1400 Kiwi farmers from 36 VDCs are engaged in it.

The government has developed ‘Boach Horticultural Farm’ in  Dolakha district with its increasing popularity  (Thapa, 2010). A pilot program called the ‘Commercial Kiwi Promotional Program’ has been implemented by the government in five districts, namely Ilam, Dolakha, Lamjung,  Parbat, and Dadeldhura (Thapa, 2010). The  Federation of Nepalese Chamber of  Commerce and Industry (FNICC) has selected  Makawanpur and Ilam for its One Village One  Product (OVOP) program (Poudel, K. P. 2012).

We were talking about the worldwide scenario, in 2018, approx. 4.3M tonnes of Kiwi fruit were produced worldwide; increasing by 4.4% against the previous year (Trade,  2019). China constitutes the country with the largest quantity of Kiwi fruit production,  accounting for about half of the total production. New Zealand (437K tonnes)  ranked third in terms of total production with a 10% share (Trade, 2019).

The primary appeal of the Kiwifruit is its uniqueness and its distinctive fresh flavor which becomes more aromatic when it ripens. It is a rich source of minerals such as potassium,  magnesium, calcium, and phosphorous, along with crude fiber and, more importantly,  dietary fiber, and is renowned for its strong laxative properties. Containing over 20  essential nutrients and a range of vitamins, Kiwifruit comes near the top of fruits classed as superfoods (Latocha, 2017).

It is one of the richest sources of vitamin C with up to 430 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) and is considered the richest dietary source of myo inositol (up to 982 mg/100 g FW) (Latocha,  2017). Further, containing up to about  1301.1 mg/100 g FW phenolics and significant amounts of essential minerals of potassium, calcium, and zinc; the Kiwifruit rates very highly as a ‘Healthy Food’.  Researches have pointed to Kiwifruit being a  promising treatment for some cancers and health issues involving the gastrointestinal system, hypercholesterolemia, and certain cancers.

It is also renowned for having the benefits of maintaining healthy skin tone and texture, reducing blood pressure, and preventing heart disease and stroke. Also,  Kiwifruit is a good source of folate for pregnant women (Borah, 2018).  

Table 1: Top 10 Kiwifruit-producing countries (2018) 

Rank Country Production (MT)

1 China 2035158

2 Italy 562188

3 New Zealand 414261

4 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 266319

5 Greece 265280

6 Chile 230267

7 France 61920

8 Turkey 53201

9 USA 34290

10 Portugal 34057

Source: (FAOSTAT, 2018) 

Kiwifruit, previously known as Chinese gooseberry, is also described as “King of  Fruits” due to its high vitamin C content (Xu  & Zhang, 2003). It originated from China and was introduced to the world market from  New Zealand. At present, the top 10  Kiwifruit-producing countries in the world are China, Italy, New Zealand, Chile, Greece,  France, Turkey, Iran, Japan and the United  States of America.

The history of commercial farming of Kiwifruit in Nepal is not so long. It  has been only 15-20 years of commercial farming in Nepal. It is believed to have been introduced in Nepal during the Swiss project in some lands of Charikot and Jiri of Dolakha district during the 1980s (Dhakal, 2018). 

Due to the growing nutritional concern of the consumers and its potential national and international market, Kiwi cultivation has become a recent trend in the Solukumbu district. The government has recently established a Kiwi zone in the district comprising of 1 municipality and 2 rural municipalities under the Prime Minister  Agriculture Modernization Project (PMAMP).  To increase the efficacy of the project, the programs launched by the project must address the prevailing problems of the farmer’s field. This study aims to enlist and rank the problems as per their severity so that  PMAMP and other concerned authorities can design effective programs to address it. 

Kiwi being a care-intensive crop and  Solukhumbu being a geographically difficult area formulating and launching programs for  Kiwi cultivation in the area can be a  cumbersome task. This study will help governmental, non-governmental, and other organizations who want to work in the field of Kiwi in the Solukhumbu district as they will  know the major constraints of Kiwi production in the area after this study. The objective of the study was to enlist and rank the problem of Kiwi cultivation and marketing as per severity and intensity as well as to provide the report of farmers’ problems to related governmental, non governmental bodies working for Kiwi and hence assist them in planning and implementation of programs for next fiscal year. 

According to the project implementation unit office of Kiwi Zone (2020) under the Prime  Minister Agriculture Modernization Program implemented by MoAD in Solukhumbu district, Hayward, Alison, and Montie are the wide cultivated varieties of Kiwi fruit. It is also known that all the Kiwi fruits are being consumed locally in Nepal due to their nutritional benefits. There are 81 registered  Farmers groups/cooperatives/farms/companies involved in Kiwi cultivation in the  Solukhumbu district. 

Table 2. Farmers groups/cooperatives/farms/companies involved in Kiwi cultivation in  Solukhumbu district 

S.N Firm name Address

1 Dudhkunda Krishi Byabasaya Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

2 Himali Public Falfaul Nursury Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

3 Sherpa Bahuodesya Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

4 Didi Bahni Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

5 Kyamje Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

6 Lama Byabasaik Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

7 P T L Pashu Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

8 Sagarmatha Bahuodesya Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

9 Sekarshingh Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

10 Dudhkund Dudghda Ootoadak Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

11 Smart Poultry Firm Tatah Dana Ootpadan Solu Du Na Pa 

12 Himalai Jadibuti Odpadan Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

13 Everest Bahuodesya Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

14 Chinkpu Byabassaik Krishi Tatha Pashu Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

15 Jaleswari Bahuodesya Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

16 Sherpa Krishi Tahta Jadibuti Ekritik Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

17 Yamadin Byabasaya Krishi Tahta Pashu Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

18 Sherpa Agro Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

19 Sherpa Krishi Firm0 Solu Du Na Pa 

20 Nima Hrt Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

21 Chinakpu Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

22 Laliguras Misrit Krishi Samuha Solu Du Na Pa 

23 Dudhkundsa Heude Krishi Falful Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

24 Suryamukhi Falful Tarkari Odpadan Krishak Amuha Solu Du Na Pa 

25 Bishal Himali Falful Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

26 Surke Nahuodesya Krsihsi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

27 K B Krishi Tatha Pashu Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

28 Syarkhumbu Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

29 Gorakhani Kiei Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

30 Tapting Ok Jadibitu Prasodhan Kendra0 Solu Du Na Pa 

31 Grisma Bahuodesya Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

32 Iccha Bahuodesya Krishi Tatha Pashu Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

33 Ajambari Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa  34 S S Jadibuti Firm Solu Du Na Pa  35 DSP Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa  36 Pk Pashupanxi Palan Tahtha Otpaadan Kendra Solu Du Na Pa 

37 Pinasa Bahuodesya Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

38 Arun Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

39 Sagarmatha Bahuodesya Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

40 Bishwas Adhunik Kishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

41 Matribhumi Yuba Organic Bahuodewsya Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

42 Sherpa Organic Kiwi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

43 Jwalamai Agro Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

44 Menuka Bahuodesya Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

45 C G Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

46 Sujansashi Krishi Tatha Pashu Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

47 Salme Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

48 Organic Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

49 Falamkhani Bahuodesya Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

50 Everset Bhaisi Palan Tatha Krishi Firm Solu Du Na Pa 

51 Firms from Thulung dudhkoshi rural municipality Address 

52 Gaurab Bahuodesya Krishi Farm Thulung Dudhkoshi

53 Deusa Krishi Ban Pra Li Thulung Dudhkoshi

54 Jalim Krishi Farm Thulung Dudhkoshi

55 Surja Masu Pasal Taha Kiwi Firm Thulung Dudhkoshi

56 Highand Organic Krishi Firm Thulung Dudhkoshi

57 Kangel Bahuudesya Krishi Firm Thulung Dudhkoshi

58 Amrit Krishi Firm Thulung Dudhkoshi

59 Thakumala Organic Krishi Firm Thulung Dudhkoshi

60 Jaya Laxmi Bahuodesya Krishi Firm Thulung Dudhkoshi

61 Dudhkoshi Krishi Firm Thulung Dudhkoshi

62 Karma Sherpa Fancy Stores Thulung Dudhkoshi

63 Nayabasti Krishi Firm Thulung Dudhkoshi

64 Om Agroforestry Enterprise Thulung Dudhkoshi

65 Himalayana Krishi Bikas Tatha Prasodhan Thulung Dudhkoshi

66 Nawajyoti Krishak Samuha Thulung Dudhkoshi

67 Firm Name from Nechasalyan rural municipality Address 

68 Sarobar Falful Tatha Tarkari Form Nechasalyan Gapa 1

69 Yadeemchyo Kiwi Fal Tatha Pasupalan Form Nechasalyan Gapa 4

70 Jalapadevi Bahuudhesya Krishi Form Nechasalyan Gapa 3

71 Aatmanirbhar Mahila Krishak Samuha Nechasalyan Gapa 3

72 Gita Bahuudhesya Krishi Form Nechasalyan Gapa 3

73 Bhandari Bahuidhesya Krishi Form Nechasalyan Gapa 3

74 Chaur Gaun Kiwi From Nechasalyan Gapa 1

75 Nawajyoti Mahila Tatha Purus Mishrit Krishak Samuha Nechasalyan Gapa 5

76 Sunaulo Mahila Tatha Purus Mishrit Krishak Samuha Nechasalyan Gapa 5

77 Chamlaboot Tarkari Krishak Samuha Nechasalyan Gapa 4

78 Laliguras Krishak Samuha Nechasalyan Gapa 1

79 Shree Himalayan Organic Krishi Tatha Pashupalan Form Nechasalyan Gapa 5

80 Sagarmatha Krishi Tatha Falful Kendra Nechasalyan Gapa 2 81 Chhatra Bahuudhesya Krishi Form Nechasalyan Gapa 2 

Bhandari N. B, & Aryal M, 2015; A study on the average cost of production and gross profit of fruit farming in Nepal during  2014/15, carried out by MoAD; Agribusiness  Promotion and Marketing Development  Directorate, Market Research, and Statistics  Management Program, Hariharbhawan,  Lailtpur, informs us that annual variable cost for Kiwi farming increases every year by 10%. 

The benefit-cost ratio of fruits ranges from 1  to 5. It means the profit is 5 times more than the total cost. Suppose there is a total cost of  Rs 1,00,000 then, the profit will be Rs  5,00,000 for a 5 B/C ratio. It depends upon the fruit type and life span. In the study, it was found that Kiwi has a higher B/C ratio,  followed by banana and papaya. Kiwi is a new fruit for Nepal and has a higher farm-gate price per Kg. The B/C ratio of the fruit crop varied from 1.86 to 3.66, showing their relatively higher level of profitability in terms of investment (Economic Aspects of Fruit and Vegetable Production, 1992). 


LEE Site and Sub-sector 

The study was carried out in Solukhumbu district which is one of the high hilly districts of Province 1. The district is surrounded by  Sankhuwasabha in the east, Bhojpur in the south-east, Khotang and Okhaldhunga in the south, Province No. 3 in the west, and Tibet (China) in the north. The total land area of the district measures 3,312 km2 (331 200  hectares), with the highest elevation of the district being 8,848 meters (29,029 ft) (Mt.  Everest) and the lowest elevation is 600  meters (2,000 ft) (Tuintar) above sea level. 

Solukhumbu is divided into 8 local-level units,  1 unit is urban and 7 are rural. They are further divided into wards. Solukhumbu is the single-seat constituency for the parliamentary constituency and a double seat for the provincial constituency. Under the Prime Minister Agriculture  Modernization Project, Solukhumbu district has allocated 3 zones viz. Kiwi,  Ginger/Turmeric, and Citrus zone. The study was mostly concentrated in the Kiwi zone covering 1 municipality and 2 rural municipalities comprising many wards. 

The study was focused on the problems of  Kiwi cultivation and marketing in the  Solukhumbu district. Kiwi is the most important fruit crop in the district. Among the exported fruit crops from the district,  Kiwi holds the first position. The total area under Kiwi in the fiscal year 2074/75 is 85 ha of the total 92000 ha cultivable land of  Solukhumbu (AKC Profile). 

Unit of Analysis 

The primary unit of analysis was the household of the whole population of Kiwi growers in Solukhumbu district, only those residing in the Kiwi zone of PMAMP viz.  Solududhkunda municipality, Nechasalyan, and Thulung Dudhkoshi rural municipality were studied. 

The Population of the Case Study 

Kiwi being the profitable fruit crop in the district, the population involved in the Kiwi sector is increasing day by day (PMAMP  profile). The total population in the Kiwi sector is comprised of a large number of farmers. A complete enumeration of all the farmers was constrained by time factors,  money, and energy.

Therefore, owing to constraints, a definite number of respondents are selected via simple random sampling which is representative of the whole population. The commercial Kiwi growers and the cooperatives involved in the  Kiwi zone comprise the sampling frame. 

Among these, simple random sampling was conducted to select the farmers in the survey. As the Kiwi zone site comprises 1  Municipality and 2 Rural Municipality, at least 30 commercial growers from each of the 3  Municipalities (Solududhkunda, Thulung  Dudhkoshi, and Nechasalyan) were surveyed.  A total of 90 commercial growers were surveyed. The concerned authority from each municipality’s area was interviewed for additional information. 

JLXVEhpAc5TRmM3WvgFX5NA3eh0hSPPEsShd3Dv5H2IHnGc yOATEUpaXR9GZat72BbXeX2goxbvF md15yvD13CgEiONEqmDYjRYi88WPnDI8N4Om

Figure 1: Map showing the study area in Solukhumbu district 

Research Design

A questionnaire was prepared and pretested with 5 farmers from each municipality.  Problems faced by the farmers were enlisted down and necessary correction in the questionnaire was done. After Interviewing key informants and analyzing the problems from the test survey, major 5  problems were selected and included in the new questionnaire to be ranked by the farmer. 

The enlisted 5 major problems were given for farmers to rank from 1-5 as per their severity. After the problem was ranked by the farmer, it was allocated a certain number based upon its rank, and the total sum of marks received by the problem was calculated to determine the final severity of the problem.

Table 3. Problem rank given by farmers. 

Rank of the problem as given by the farmers Allocated Mark

5 1 

4 0.8 

3 0.6 

2 0.4 

1 0.2 

Observation and Observation Methods 

A total of 90 Kiwi-growing farmers were  observed via the following methods 

Questionnaire survey 

The actors (private firms, cooperatives,  farmers groups, and concerned  governmental authorities) involved in the  survey were asked a series of open and close 

ended questions that aided in the collection of some useful data regarding the various problems encountered in the production and marketing of the Kiwi fruit.  

Key Informants’ Interview 

Key informants such as the coordinator of the  Kiwi zone committee, local leaders, AKC,  DDC, ASC, cooperative members, collectors,  and traders were interviewed regarding the present scenario of Kiwi cultivation in the area, the major problem they are suffering,  current production and price trend, etc. 

Data Analysis Techniques 

Data analysis involves making sense of the large volume of information collected from field research. Hence, reducing voluminous text by coding and classifying the related concepts is important for systematic recording and retrieval for later use. Data collected from the questionnaire survey; and key informant interview was analyzed using statistical software like MS Excel. 


Sources of income 

The major source of income of the respondents was found to be agriculture. 76% of the total respondent’s state agriculture as their major occupation, whereas only 24% of respondent household income relies on non-agriculture-related fields. This data is higher than the national population involved in agriculture, i.e.,  65.67% (CBS, 2011). 

Status of foreign employment 

The result shows that Out of 90 people, 24, i.e.,  26.66%, people have their family members abroad for foreign employment, whereas 66  people, i.e., 73.33% people do not have any of their family members involved in foreign employment. It suggests that there is manpower available in the study area to work in agriculture. 

Availability of electricity 

Being geographically challenging district some places of Solukhumbu are still out of access to electricity. Of the total respondent, 34% lacks electricity in their field and only 66% have access  to electricity. This hinders the operation of electrical equipment like water pumps, electric sprayers, mills, etc. 

Soil testing 

The result shows that very few farmers (33%)  regularly test their soil whereas, the majority  of farmers (67%) do not perform regular soil testing.  

OLrbrwE7DtmggmvMFUTRXN1OG68aBBTxlxVa8ksdx2Ol cBP2yotLwoJPHOgXIGIyPmcBGyceG4hqqJUxIZMBgrUHkm8iElP7 bteAC4kRLQMPOke4ELLqrYKtQnkudTkZn2JMTtbV2PebCRFF3W Bk

Figure 2: Major source of income of respondents 

M9G h8hKhOdQHfiMzNhGLO0tbmA6 xsP5B

Figure 3: Status of foreign employment 

Training on Kiwi cultivation 

The result shows that only 35% of the growers have received training on Kiwi cultivation, whereas 65% of farmers are growing Kiwi without any training.  It was evident during the field visit that most of the Kiwi orchard was poorly managed and training pruning was not done. 

Major problems on Kiwi cultivation

Among the many problems of Kiwi cultivation in Solukhumbu district, the most severe are selected and ranked as below. Kiwi being a  vine crop, needs a cemented T bar pillar system for support. Among other problems,  it was found to be most severe (total score  82), followed by knowledge of Kiwi cultivation practices (66.2). Lack of Quality sapling ranks third with a score of 36.6. This has compelled farmers to use saplings of poor graft compatibility and of unknown variety. The other problems in the area were  

found to be hailstorm damaging the crop,  threats from wild animals, lack of irrigation,  mechanization in agriculture and unavailability of chemical fertilizers. 

Cr2lfFVJoFzYCOIq 5ZXgMUceIr3Su70j0VLxf xk0rVyIxgnqNcrxpdDni0BKc9FlVc LWjEU1a 897HW 3 6lUq51BHRL jG4xZ9a8dG6NCYuF Rj ETF3bSpyD60LoSrqnrOfGDwsOM1cjnk lpo

Figure 4: Availability of electricity 

IIeDz0c1m 0tzSIt nsAWM8ob8UO76pW1pMcVpOYb2hOObLkCRA4WNykXIhthuvno77K3JhlEYjR9duOi9zdXJo7qgQVQm04UxYeQjr 7F9 O3fbtq3fnft4UvSnw GtQ

Figure 5: Soil testing of field

0R5BqaajUa7AqiBYDMXjc4YPBXLnxI0yo6EATQmFFemMNnIdfe3Y wQFOnrgdzkay53XPUyhz4Xglm5o93Yu lKQWx138lXURYejhm8ayl V lmNCgfsma5c00d4 fYbIqOv1FV45NSCU0 0wZXDM

Figure 6: Training on Kiwi cultivation 

Table 3: Major Problem on Kiwi cultivation 

S.N Name of Problem Total Score Received 1 T bar pillar construction 82 

2 Lack of Knowledge on cultivation practices 66.2 

3 Unavailability of Quality sapling 36.6 

4 Marketing 49.4 

5 Others 35.8 

Total 270 

3 HnpsSq4n8j8A9T G8C9RH7ajmxoi8JXbK

Figure 7: Severity of problem in Kiwi cultivation

sylHZnq6aSQ5PPpciXvSvTGUEfkhx4LDg51Rjv7JHmgU HFEBe2x 36InRIRH5qxkzu9t3YxjZ6QFBSu2CnNCzxKW7I6FKT0

Figure 8: Trend of Kiwifruit demand and production 

Source: Field Survey 20117/18, (Manandhar L.K., 2017, A Study of Kiwifruit Production and  Marketing- A case of hill districts of Nepal.) 

The T bar pillar system in the Kiwi vineyard is built from reinforced cement concrete  (R.C.C), GI pipes, and wires. Being a rural area where transportation costs are too high, the cost of those ingredients is too expensive.  The estimated cost of construction of the T bar in the 1 ropani land area is NRs. 1,23,920  (PMAMP Solukhumbu 2020) which is greater than the per capita income of Nepalese people US $ 1004 – NRs. 1,06,333 annually  (2018).

Farmers of Solukhumbu district who are relying upon subsistence agriculture are unable to afford this. They were making wooden and bamboo pillar systems, but they lasted only for a couple of years. 

Similarly, Kiwi being a new crop to farmers they lack the know-how of its cultivation like training pruning, grafting, intercropping, etc.  Only 35 % of farmers have received training on the cultivation practices of Kiwi. 65% of growers are managing their orchards without any former pieces of training. This was also evident during the farmer’s field visit during the study as the orchard was poorly managed and plants were in dilapidated condition.

The quality saplings of Kiwi fruits are expensive and difficult to find. During the study, some farmers reported that they had bought Kiwi saplings from abroad, viz. China,  Italy, etc. As grafting saplings are only recommended for commercial Kiwi farming,  the lack of farmer’s knowledge on grafting and the lack of screen house to grow saplings is causing this huge gap between demand and supply (AKC Solukhumbu). 

Among other problems of Kiwi, cultivation marketing lies in the fourth position as per its severity (score 49.4). Within many problems related to marketing, lack of transportation was the main problem with a score of 80.6,  followed by lack of storing facility, i.e., cold storage (score 76.8). The third-ranked problem of marketing was the lack of knowledge on post-harvest processing for value addition and product diversification  (score 52.8). The untimely return back of the money was the fourth problem with a score of 37.8. These problems are followed by some other problems related to marketing like lack of crates for harvest and storing, the role of the middle man, price fluctuations, etc. 

Table 4: Major problem in Kiwi marketing 

S.N Name of the problem related to marketing Total Score Received

1 Transportation 80.6

2 Cold storage 76.8 

3 Lack of knowledge on post-harvest processing, 

value addition, and product diversification.  52.8 

4 Untimely return of money 37.8 

5 Others 22 

Total 270 

kSkjarAxLseFS4SLx6vZMfTQ iI1gKDUTnRur2iZt 3dbCCucpeSmAHJTf0t

Figure 9. The severity of problems of Kiwi marketing 

The average age of Kiwifruit among the respondents was found to be 2.94 Years,  while the economic bearing age of the plant is 4 years (Shrestha C.M). So, as the majority of plants are under the economic bearing age, the supply of Kiwifruit in the market is not high.

But within a few years after the plants reaching economic bearing age, the supply of the Kiwi is going to be too high which will disrupt the present balance of demand and supply. So measures should be taken from right now so that the balance is kept and price fluctuation is minimize Transportation has got the highest score among all other problems of Kiwi marketing. 

This can be attributed to the fact that geographical constraints pose a huge burden on transportation. The average time required for the farmer to reach a related municipality is 99 minutes. Also, the average time to reach the nearest market from the farmer’s house is 90 minutes. This suggests that the Kiwi growing area is quite far from related markets and municipalities. But the Kiwi field seems close to the road network (25 minutes walking time). 35.5% of the respondent’s field was linked to the seasonal road, 34.4 % of the respondent’s field was linked to a gravel road, 17 % of field was linked to the peach road and 13% of the total field was out of reach from any road networks. 

As the roads are seasonal, the transportation of Kiwi via public vehicles is too costly which can’t be offered by the farmer. If they carry  Kiwi themselves on doko to sell in the market they have to stay in hotels for several days which is costly too. So geographical constrain impose a huge challenge on Kiwi marketing. 

Table 5: Access to infrastructure  

S.N Statements Average time (min)

1 Municipality/rural municipality to field 99

2 Road to field 25

3 House to market 90

4 Market to field 99 

Table 6: Status of roads near the field 

S.N Type of road No. of farmers %

1 Seasonal 32 35.5

2 Gravel 31 34.4

3 Peach 15 17

4 Out of access to roads 12 13 

The cost of a single cold storage establishment is about 15 lakh (PMAMP  Solukhmumbu), which can store products from one municipality, so to cover all the Kiwi growing areas, we need to construct 3 of them, which will cost about 45 lakhs. This is a  huge sum of money without proper subsidy from the government and related bodies,  which can’t be constructed. 

As the majority of the farmer hasn’t received any training regarding Kiwi, they lack knowledge on value addition of the product.  Different measures of product diversification like jam Mada, juice, wine preparation from  Kiwi can fetch a higher price than raw fruit itself. With proper training on these things market of Kiwi fruit can be widened and farmers can fetch a higher price. 

Being a rural area barter system of economy is still prevalent in the area (DDC Solukumbu).  So, if farmers sell Kiwi to their local neighbors, they won’t get payback in time. So instead of targeting the local market, the farmers should target the national and international markets for their products. 


The major problems of Kiwi cultivation were found to be the establishment of the T bar pillar system followed by a lack of knowledge on Kiwi cultivation practices, quality sapling unavailability, marketing of Kiwi, and others,  respectively. Within marketing, the major problems were the lack of transportation facility followed by the cold storage facility, lack of knowledge on value addition and product diversification, untimely payback of the money, and others respectively.

The study  suggests that to promote Kiwi, the  cultivation government should bring  programs like subsidy on T bar pillar  construction, training for farmers on  cultivation practices of Kiwi, subsidy for  screen house construction for Kiwi nursery which will address the growing demand of quality saplings, etc.

On the marketing side, if a vehicle is given to farmers groups/cooperatives for Kiwi transportation,  it will be a great relief to them. The establishment of cold stores and training to farmers on post-harvest processing for value addition and product diversification can spread the market of Kiwi at the national as well as international level. 


Annual Report. Fruits Development  Directorate (FDD). 2016, Kirtipur,  Kathmandu, Nepal. 

Annual Report. Directorate of Soil  Management.2016, Hariharbhawan,  Lalitpur, Nepal. 

Annual Progress Report. Agriculture Service  Center. (2076), Solukhumbu, Nepal.

Dhakal, S.An Introduction of Kiwifruit and cultivation Technology. (2018), Charikot:  Temperate fruits rootstock development centre. 

Dhakal, S. An Introduction of Kiwifruit and cultivation Technology. (2018), Charikot:  Temperate fruits rootstock development centre. 

FAO. (2019). http:// in-nepal-at-a-glance/en/. 

J., M. Kiwifruit Production and Marketing in  Nepal (1987). Kiwifruits. w 

: MoALD. Statistical information on Nepalese  Agriculture. Ministry of Agriculture and  Livestock Development. (2017),  Kathmandu, Nepal. 

Shrestha C.M. A Study of Kiwifruit  Cultivation, A Case of Hill District of  Nepal. 2013).

. Protection Status