Mohammadpur, Dhaka |

Bioefficacy of insecticides against fall armyworm Spodoptera fergpirda on  maize crop under field conditions of Tandojam, Sindh

Editor Chief

Spread the love
Corresponding author:  E-mail:
Spodoptera fergipirda 
Field condition 
Received: 23.05.2023 
Received in revised form: 26.05.2023 
Accepted: 28.05.2023
Fall armyworm (Spodoptera fergpirda) is one of the destructive insect pests of agricultural crops, particularly maize in the field condition. It has severely damaged the maize in the early stage of crops. The efficacy of different insecticides such as Emamectin Benzoate 019EC,  Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 14% WDG, Lufeneron 05EC,  Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC, Chlorantraniliprole 20SC  and control were used in the study. In the first spray maximum population reduction of S. fergpirda (90.377 %) was recorded for Chlorantraniliprole  20SC followed by Chlorantraniliprole+Thiamethoxome 14%WDG  (68.287%), Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (58.283 %),  Emamectin Benzoate 019EC (53.117%), and Lufeneron 05EC (37.800%),  whereas minimum population reduction of S. fergpirda was observed from control treatment. Similarly in the second spray highest population of S. fergpirda reduction was determined for Chlorantraniliprole 20SC  (91.680%) followed by Chlorantraniliprole +Thiamethoxome 14% WDG  (78.307%), Chlorantraniliprole +Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (63.683%),  Emamectin Benzoate 019EC (54.823%), Lufeneron 05EC (34.797%) and lowest population reduction was recorded in control treatments.  Therefore, the findings of the current study Chlorantraniliprole 20SC was found more effective for the management of S. fergipirda on maize crop under field conditions. 


Maize (Zea mays L.) belongs to the family Gramineae and one of the most important cereal crops after wheat and rice in Pakistan (Bukhsh et al. 2011), The maize crop is used all over the world for both food and feed, it contains high-value food for humans as well as stockpiles for animal feed. (Abebe and Feyisa, 2017;  

Adnan, 2020). The nutrition is found in the grains of Maize as it contains 72% starch, 10% protein, 4.8% oil, 8.5% fiber, 3% sugar, and 1% ash. (Chaudhary, 1983). The various factors involved in low maize production in Pakistan. Maize crop is infested by a number of insect pests such as armyworm (Spodoptera fergipirda), stem borer (Chilopartellus), thrips (Thrips tabaci), aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis), shoot fly (Atherigona soccata) and termite are main pest causing significant losses (Arabjafari and Jalai, 2007;  Nabeel et al., 2018).

Among all insect pests, the fall armyworm Spodoptera fergipirda is one of the main destructive and serious pests for maize. (Assefa and  Ayalew, 2019). Fall Armyworm S. fergpirda originated in the United States, but recent reports from the Asia  Pacific and Africa. The Fall Armyworm has caused great international concern since its destruction in  Asia in 2018 and Africa in 2016 (Deshmukh et al.  2021).

Its damage has been reported from more than  80 crops such as maize, millet, rice, sugarcane, millet,  and cotton being the main hosts of fall armyworm S.  fergipirda (Abrahams et al. 2017; Cock et al. 2017;  Montezano et al. 2018). The damage caused to the maize crop by the S. fergipirda has been recorded at about 15-73%. (Hruska and Gould, 1997; Lima et al.,  2010). Many generations of S. fergipirda in a year and temperature have a significant role in its development  (Belay, 2011).

The larvae are the harmful stage of S.  fergipirda because the first and second instars usually consume one side of the leaves and make them into skeletons, while the last instars eat all parts of their hosts (Abrahams et al. 2017). According to several reports, many of these pesticides have not been effective. Therefore, in addition to these pesticides,  some new pesticides need to be re-examined for effective management of S. fergipirdas. 


The experiment was carried out in the field of Plant  Protection Research Institute, Tandojam, in 2021. The experiment was arranged Randomized Complete  Block Design (RCBD) where each treatment replicates three times. The six insecticides Emamectin Benzoate,  Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC,  Lufeneron 05EC, Chlorantraniliprole +  Thiamethoxome 14% WDG, Chlorantraniliprole 20SC  and control were tested against S. fergipirda and  subsequent application of insecticides was given at 20  days interval with help of hand knapsack sprayer.

The size of each replicated plot is 50×33 sq ft. The data were taken population of S. fergipirda larvae based on the appearance and fresh body waste in the leaf whorl of 25 plants randomly from the experimental plot. The data was recorded before spray after 48 hours, 96  hours, and after one week. The collected data was analyzed using (ANOVA) Analysis of Variance and  (LSD) least square difference with computer software  STATISTIX 8.1. Moreover, the percentage reduction in  pest population after the application of various  

insecticides were calculated using Abbot’s (1925)  formula as given below: 

1MWBLebvClnoo YLZVGiQhkI00TQ5MvtqolirusPXJN5 MYZ9IW4abMJE pS70uUqz7TXnaw pGkZxxt2B5ZGW0lm9jhpbES5rm6KO5ogYzrnug 7bZo80unHCGQM8g Vg5HYmWPCiiphSf2f1fwKBc


First spray 

The results showed (Table 1) that all the treatments were found significantly different from the control in reducing the larval population of S. fergipirda in the first spray at 48, 96, and one week after spray. The data indicated that the larval population before spray was non-significant (F = 0.55; P = 0.7375) difference among all treatments. The S. fergipirda larval population after 48 hours of spray, showed highly significant (F = 60.38; P = 0.0000) differences among the treatments.

The minimum population of fall  armyworm S. fergipirda (3.61±0.56/25 plants) was  recorded for Chlorantraniliprole 20SC followed by  Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 14 % WDG  (8.13±0.69/25 plants), Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (11.29±0.80/25 plants),  Emamectin Benzoate 019EC (13.97±0.83/25plants)  and Lufeneron 05EC (19.45±0.80/25 plants).

The data showed that the maximum larval population of fall army worm S. fergipirda (24.05±1.65/25 plants) was found on the control treatment. The results indicated that the population of S. fergipirda after 96 hours of spraying showed (F = 108.34; P<=0.0000) a highly significant difference in all treatments.

The lowest population (1.92±0.32/25 plants) of fall army worm S.  fergipirda was observed on Chlorantraniliprole 20SC  followed by Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome  14% WDG (8.58 ± 0.64/25 plants), Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (10.7 ± 0.82/25 plants),  Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 019EC  (11.09±0.86/25plants) and Lufeneron 05EC  (14.61±0.79/25 plants).

However, the highest population of fall armyworm S. fergipirda (27.56±1.25) was recorded on the control treatment. The data observed on the population of fall armyworm S.  fergipirda after one week of spray reveal a highly significantly difference (F = 75.31; P=0.0000) in the treatments.

The results showed that the spray of  Chlorantraniliprole 20SC found the lowest population  (2.06±0.44/25 plants) of fall army worm S. fergpirda,  followed by Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome  14% WDG (9.01±0.63/25plants), Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (11.65±1.09/25 plants), Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 019EC (12.53±0.74/25 plants) and Lufeneron 05EC (15.64 ± 1.03/25 plants).  The highest population (29.68±1.82/25 plants)  of fall armyworm S. fergipirda was found on the Control treatment. 

(Figure 1) showed that the corrected percentage  of the population fall armyworm S. fergipirda reduction after 1st spray was recorded the highest  reduction of pest population (84.98 %) was recorded  for Chlorantraniliprole 20 SC treatments after 48  hours of spray, followed by Chlorantraniliprole ± 

Thiamethoxome 14 % WDG (66.18 %),  Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 17.5 %SC  (53.05%), Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 019 EC  (41.81%) and Lufeneron 05EC (19.12 %). Moreover,  overall maximum reduction percentage of population fall army worm S. fergpirda (90.377%) was found on  Chlorantraniliprole 20SC followed by  Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 14 % WDG  (68.287 %), Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome  17.5%SC (58.283 %), Emamectin Benzoate 019 EC  019EC (53.117 %) and Lufeneron 05EC (37.800 %)  respectively. 

Table 1: Efficacy of different insecticides against fall army worm S. fergperda on maize crop in 1st spray 

Treatment Dose/acre Pre-Treatment Post Treatment Reduction  Percentage
48 hours 96 hours One week 
Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 200g/acre 24.53±1.65a 13.97±0.83c 11.09±0.86c 12.53±0.74c 53.117%
Chlorantraniliprole+Thiamethoxo me 14% WDG150ml/acre 26.30±1.82a 8.13±0.69e 8.58±0.64d 9.01±0.63d 68.287%
Lufeneron 05EC 200ml/acre 24.37±1.78a 19.45±0.80b 14.61±0.79b 15.64±1.03b 37.800%
Chlorantraniliprole+Thiamethoxo me17.5%SC200ml/acre 27.13±2.15a 11.29±0.80d 10.7±0.82cd 11.65±1.09cd 58.283%
Chlorantraniliprole 20SC 50ml/acre 27.65±1.97a 3.61±0.56f 1.92±0.32e 2.06±0.44e 90.377%
Control —- 22.61±1.92a 24.05±1.65a 27.56±1.25a 29.68±1.82a —-

LSD values @ P < 0.05 [Pre-spray = 5.0848; 48-Hours = 2.6693; 96-Hours = 2.2770; One week = 2.9407   Q8h6P1xEc0w akRD5I4bp7vtXVBHkHnEYW41GH3B5eh krDaXKOuGcqq6AmGn 4 a8eYJ7GgtAzA2eJBnIqenLepnrnJt jlqU54k6tKKfvPQQcfbIzhTdy56CLKRafUloRLcaCo 8Am1GwZ7WmYkF8

Figure 1: Corrected percentage population reduction of S. fergipirda on maize after 1st spray

The results of the second spray showed (Table 2) pre-treatment observation revealed that the nonsignificant difference (F=0.84; P = 0.5214) as the population of S. fergipirda ranged between  (12.06±1.61 to 13.48±1.31/25 plants). Similarly, in the first spray data indicated that highly significant difference (F=40.71; P=0.0000) among all treatments after 48 hours of spray.

The lowest S. fergipirda population (1.54±0.37/25 plants) was recorded for  Chlorantraniliprole 20SC followed by  Chlorantraniliprole± Thiamethoxome 14% WDG  (3.18±0.53/25 plants), Chlorantraniliprole±  Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (5.58±0.82/25 plants),  Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 019EC (6.86±0.64/25  plants) and Lufeneron 05EC (10.14±0.80/25 plants). 

While the highest population (14.48±1.03/25 plants)  was recorded from the control treatment. The data indicated that a highly significant difference (F=48.00;  P=0.0000) was recorded after 96 hours of spray. The  minimum population of S. fergipirda (1.01±0.30/25plants) was recorded in  Chlorantraniliprole 20SC after 96 hours of spray  followed by Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome  14% WDG (2.93±0.48/25 plants), Chlorantraniliprole±  

Thiamethoxome 17.5% SC (5.30 ± 0.68/25 plants), Emamectin Benzoate 019 EC 019 EC (6.18±0.77/25 plants) and Lufeneron 05 EC (9.06±0.76/25 plants)  while the highest population (15.10±1.07/25 plants)  was recorded on control treatment respectively.

The results showed a highly significant difference  (F=30.77; P = 0.0000) in the application of various insecticides after one week of spray. The data indicated that the highest population (1.30 ± 0.30/25  plants) of S. fergipirda was recorded in  Chlorantraniliprole 20 SC followed by  Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 14% WDG  (4.02±0.53/25 plants), Chlorantraniliprole ±  Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (6.05±0.77/25 plants),  Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 019 EC (8.05 ± 0.79/25  plants) and Lufeneron 05 EC (11.18 ± 0.96/25 plants). 

The data indicated (Figure 2) that the maximum pest population reduction of S. fergpirda (91.680%) was recorded in Chlorantraniliprole 20SC treatment,  followed by Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 14 % WDG (78.307 %), Chlorantraniliprole ±  Thiamethoxome 17.5 % SC (63.683 %), Emamectin  Benzoate 019 EC 019 EC (54.823 %) and Lufeneron  05EC (34.797 %) respectively. 

Table 2: Efficacy of different insecticides against fall armyworm S. fergperda on maize crop in 2nd spray 

Treatment Dose Pre TreatmentPost Treatment Reduction  Percentage
48 hours 96 hours One week 
Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 200g/acre 13.48±1.31a 6.86±0.64c 6.18±0.77c 8.05±0.79c 54.823%
Chlorantraniliprole±Thiamethoxome  14% WDG150ml/acre 11.65±1.57a 3.18±0.53d 2.93±0.48d 4.02±0.53de 78.307%
Lufeneron 05EC 200ml/acre 10.98±1.57a 10.14±0.80b 9.06±0.76b 11.18±0.96b 34.797%
Chlorantraniliprole±Thiamethoxome  17.5%SC200ml/acre 9.90±1.44a 5.58±0.82cd 5.30±0.68c 6.05±0.77cd 63.683%
Chlorantraniliprole 20SC 50ml/acre 10.05±1.37a 1.54±0.37d 1.01±0.30d 1.30±0.30e 91.680%
Control — 12.06±1.61a 14.48±1.03a 15.10±1.07a 17.05±1.89a 

LSD values @ P < 0.05 [Pre-spray = 4.0761; 48-Hours = 2.0186; 96-Hours = 2.0055; One week = 2.8032] 


The field experiment was conducted on the efficacy of different insecticides against S. fergipirda on maize under field conditions. It has been reported that S.  frugiperda is a serious pest of field corn, cotton, and grain sorghum (Hardke et al. 2011). The current study  was conducted to test the different insecticides against S. frugiperda. The findings of the present study that chlorantraniliprol 20 SC significantly reduced the S. fergipirda on maize crops under field conditions. 

Deshmukh et al. (2020) supported that the chlorantraniliprol 18.5 SC was found most effective pesticides against S. fergipirda followed by emmevtin benzoate 5 SG, spinetoram 11.7 SC, flubendiamide  480 SC, indoxocarb 14.5 SC, lambda cyhalothrin 5 EC and novaluron 10 EC on maize.

Similarly, the application of chlorantraniliprol reduced the maximum infestation of S. fergipirda on maize whorls followed by Lambda cyhalothrin, methoxyfenozide and control after 3 days of treatment (Hardke et al. 2012). Thrash et al. (2013) agreed that chlorantraniliprol and cyntraniliprol significantly reduce the larval population of S.  fergipirda in the soybean field.

Moreover, the mixture of insecticides chlorfenapyre + chlorantraniliprol and  Lufenuron is recommended for the management of S.  fergipirda in sugarcane crops in Guangxi, China (Song  et al. 2020). Li et al. (2021) mentioned that  Chlorantraniliprol is effective against the S.  fruguperda through drip irrigation and its effect was longer than artificial or drone spray. Furthermore,  Chlorantraniliprol had a very strong transport capacity to move from stems to leaves and concentrated in the upper leaves of maize. Chlorantraniliprole was not detected in any plant parts at the time of harvesting. 

Muraro et al. (2020) agreed that seeds of maize crops treated with Chlorantraniliprol alone or combined with imidacloprid reduce the infestation of S.  fruguperda under field as well as laboratory conditions. Villegas et al. (2019) mentioned that seeds treated with chlorantraniliprol provide sufficient control against S. fergipirda, sugarcane borer and water weevil at an early stage of rice crop. Therefore,  these findings confirm the results of the current study. 

49bjiNXoGpOWXh8bLb9qReC TWLcccQSO 9P2 3PVQq nNi D1W3rkpqHB34uNLy96I2BNeRGZ8LT9GmN6UgovnmEV6VsKHv6uHf

Figure 2: Corrected percentage population reduction of S. fergipirda on maize after 2nd spray 


The present study concluded that among the five insecticides, all the insecticides were more efficient than the control in decreasing the S. fergipirda population. However, chlorantraniliprol 20SC  insecticides were found most effective for reducing the S. fergipirda infestation on Maize. 


Abbott W.S. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic  Entomology, 1925, 18:265-267. 

Abebe, Z.; Feyisa, H. Effects of nitrogen rates and time of application on yield of maize: Rainfall variability influenced time of N application.  International Journal of Agronomy, 2017. 

Abrahams, P.; M. Bateman, T.; Beale, V.; Clottey, M.;  Cock, Y.; Colmenarez, N.; Corniani, R.; Day, R.;  Early, J.L.; Godwin, J.; Gomez, P.; Gonzalez  Moreno, S.T.; Murphy, B.; Oppong-Mensah, N.;  Phiri, C.; Pratt, G.; Richards, S.; Silvestri, A.; Witt.  Fall Armyworm: Impacts and implications for  Africa. CABI, UK, 2017. 

Adnan, M. Role of potassium in maize production: A  review. Op Acc Journal of Biogeneric Science and  Research, 2020, 3(5), 1-4. 

Arabjafari, K.H.; Jalai, S.K. Identification and analysis of  host plant resistance in leading maize genotypes against spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pakistan  Journal of biological Science, 2007, 10, 1885- 


Assefa, F.; Ayalew, D. Status and control measures of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) infestations in maize fields in Ethiopia: A review.  Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2019, 5(1), 1641902.

Belay, B.K. Genetic variability and gene flow of the  Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) in the western hemisphere and susceptibility to insecticides (Dissertations and Student  Research in Entomology. 7). 

Bhatti, Z.; Agha, M.A.; Imran, K.; Qurban, R.;  Shahjahan, R.; Mehvish, T.; Harrison, Y. First report of morphometric identification of  Spodoptera frugiperda J.E Smith (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae) an invasive pest of maize in  Southern Sindh. Pakistan, Asian J Agric & Biol.,  2021(1) 1-8. 

Bukhsh, M.A.; Ahmad, R.; Iqbal, J,; Rehman, A.;  Hussain, S.; Ishaque, M. Potassium application reduces bareness in different maize hybrids under crowding stress conditions. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science., 2011, 48, 31- 37. 

Capinera, John L. Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera  frugiperda (JE Smith)(Insecta: Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae): EENY098/IN255, rev. 7/2000.” EDIS  2002, no. 7 (2002). 

Chaudhary, A.R. Maize in Pakistan Punjab Agri.  Research Coordination Board University of  Agriculture Faisalabad. 1983. 

Clark, P.L.; Molina-Ochoa, J.; Martinelli,S.; Skoda,S.R.;  Isenhour, D.J.; Lee, D.J.; Krumn,J.T.; Foster,J.E..  Population variation of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) in the Western Hemisphere. Journal of Insect Science, 2007, 7, 1-10. 

Deshmukh, S.; Pavithra, H.B.; Kalleshwaraswamy,  C.M.; Shivanna, B.K.; Maruthi, M.S.; Mota Sanchez, D. Field efficacy of insecticides for management of invasive fall armyworm,  Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae) on maize in India. Florida  Entomologist, 2020, 103(2), 221-227. 

Deshmukh, S.S.; Prasanna, B.M.; Kalleshwaraswamy,  C.M.; Jagdish Jaba; Bhagirath Choudhary. “Fall  armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).”  Polyphagous pests of crops (2021): 349-372.  

Gilal, A.A.; Bashir, L.; Faheem, M.; Rajput, A.; Soomro,  J.A.; Kunbhar, S.; Sahito, J.G.M. First record of invasive fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)) in corn fields of Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of  Agricultural Research, 2020, 33(2), 247-252. 

Hardke, J.T.; Temple, J.H.; Leonard, B.R.; Jackson, R.E.  Laboratory toxicity and field efficacy of selected insecticides against fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida Entomologist,  2011, 272-278. 

Hruska, A.J.; Gould, F. Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae) and Diatraea lineolata (Lepidoptera:  Pyralidae): Impact of larval population level and temporal occurrence on maize yield in  Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology,  1997, 90(2), 611-622. 

Lima, M.S.; Silva, P.S.L.; Oliveira, O.F.; Silva,  K.M.B.; Freitas, F.C.L. Corn yield response to weed and fall armyworm controls. Planta  Daninha, 2010, 28, 103-111. 

Li, X.; Jiang, H.; Wu, J.; Zheng, F.; Xu, K.; Lin, Y.; Xu, H.  Drip application of chlorantraniliprole effectively controls invasive Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its distribution in maize in China. Crop Protection,  2021, 143, 105474. 

Montezano, D.G.; Specht, A.; Sosa-Gómez, D.R.;  Roque-Specht, V.F.; Sousa-Silva, J.C.; Paula Moraes, S.V.D.; Peterson, J.A.; Hunt, T.E. Host  plants of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae) in the Americas. African  Entomology, 2018, 26(2), 286-300. 

Muraro, D.S.; Stacke, R.F.; Cossa, G.E.; Godoy, D.N.;  Garlet, C.G.; Valmorbida, I.; Bernardi, O.  Performance of seed treatments applied on Bt and non-Bt maize against fall armyworm  (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environmental  Entomology, 2020, 49(5), 1137-1144. 

Nabeel, M.; Javed, H.; Mukhtar, T. Occurrence of Chilo partellus on maize in major maize growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology,  2018, 50(1). 

Prowell, D.P.; McMichael, M.; Silvain, J.F. Multilocus genetic analysis of host use, introgression, and speciation in host strains of fall armyworm  (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc.  Am., 2004, 97(5), 1034-1044. 

Sena, J.D.G.; Pinto, F.A.C.; Queiroz, D.M.; Viana, P.A..  Fall armyworm-damaged maize plant identification using digital images. Biosystem Engineering, 2003, 85(4), 449-454. 

Song, X.P.; Liang, Y.J.; Zhang, X.Q.; Qin, Z.Q.; Wei, J. J.;  Li, Y. R.; Wu, J. M. Intrusion of fall armyworm  (Spodoptera frugiperda) in sugarcane and its control by drone in China. Sugar Tech, 2020,  22(4), 734-737. 

Stokstad, E. New crop pest takes Africa at lightning speed. Science., 2017, 356, 473–474. 

Thrash, B.; Adamczyk, J.J.; Lorenz, G.; Scott, A.W.;  Armstrong, J.S.; Pfannenstiel, R.; Taillon, N.  Laboratory evaluations of lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Florida Entomologist, 2013, 96(3), 724-728. 

Villegas, J.M.; Wilson, B.E.; Stout, M.J. Efficacy of reduced rates of chlorantraniliprole seed treatment on insect pests of irrigated drill‐seeded rice. Pest Management Science, 2019, 75(12), 3193-3199. 

Abrahams, P.; Bateman, M.; Beale, T.; Clottey, V.; Cock, M.; Colmenarez, Y.; Witt, A. Fall armyworm: impacts and implications for Africa. Evidence note (2). Center for Agriculture and Bioscience International-CABI (2017). 

Cock, M.J.; Beseh, P.K.; Buddie, A.G.; Cafá, G.; Crozier, J. Molecular methods to detect Spodoptera frugiperda in Ghana, and implications for monitoring the spread of invasive species in developing countries. Scientific reports, 2017, 7(1), 4103. 

Montezano, D.G.; Sosa-Gómez, D.R.; Specht, A.; Roque-Specht, V.F.; Sousa-Silva, J.C.; Paula Moraes, S.D.; Hunt, T.E. Host plants of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Americas. African entomology, 2018, 26 (2), 286-300. 

Hardke, J.T.; Temple, J.H.; Leonard, B.R. and Jackson, R.E. Laboratory toxicity and field efficacy of selected insecticides against fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida Entomologist,2011, 272-278. Protection Status