Mohammadpur, Dhaka |

Cheek List of Ethnobotanical Plants of Tehsil Colony, Samarbagh, District Dir  Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

Editor Chief

Spread the love
Corresponding author:  Shakir Ullah 

Cheek List 
Ethnobotanical Plants  
Smarbagh Colony 
District Dir Lower 
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan Received: 12.05.23 
Received in revised form: 19.05.2023 
Accepted: 20.05.2023
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out on the flora of Smarbagh Colony from August 2021 to September 2022. Smarbagh Colony situated in  District Dir Lower, in regards to exploring the ethnobotanical potentiality of plants in the area. A total of 75 species belong to fifty-five families. Out of fifty-five families fifty-one families belong to angiosperm and one family belongs to gymnosperm and three families belong to  Pteridophytes. Out of 39 families of angiosperms 4 families belong to  Monocot and 47 families belong to Dicot. Rosaceae family has the largest number of species 7, followed by Poaceae and Lamiaceae have 5, 5  species, Asteraceae and Rutaceae have 4 species and Polygonaceae,  Rhamnaceae and Urticaceae have 3 species. Amaranthaceae,  Brassicaceae, Ebenacaeae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae,  Moraceae, and Solanaceae have 2 species, while the remaining families show the lowest number of species. Ethnobotanical study of plants clearly showed that all the 90 plant species reported from Tehsil Colony,  Samarbagh had some kind of traditional or vernacular uses in the district.  The largest ethnobotanical class was of 31 species which were used as  Medicinal, followed by 25 Fodder and Forage species, 14 fuel wood species, plant species that were used for more than three purposes  (miscellaneous), 11 species were used as vegetable, while 9 species are ornamental plants. The results indicate that the area is climatically and ecologically dry temperate i.e., high species richness and low abundance  and this is supported by the majority of species used as fodder and forage.  


District Dir Lower is situated in the north-western part  of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province at 34°, 37° to  35°, 07ʹN Latitude and 71°, 31°to 72°, 14ʹE longitude.  It is surrounded by Dir Upper from the north,  Malakand in the southwest, Swat from the east and in  the west by the tribal district Bajaur. It lies at 2700 feet  

Lower. Snow -covered mountains peak is the source of  feed for this River. The total area of the Dir lower is  1582 km2 and the total population is 1,435,917 (2017  census report). The natural flora of the Valley is consisting of some coniferous forest.

The vegetation  of the valley is degrading by various anthropogenic  (823 m) from the sea level. River Panjkora are flow in the middle of the two-sister district, Dir Upper and Dir activities and intensive deforestation for agriculture  practices. The commonly found plants in the area are  Melia, Morus, Ficus, and Pyrus and Pinus. Samarbagh  is a lush green valley that provides a good habitat for  many birds like sparrows, pigeons and other animals  (Anonymous, 1998). The ground floor has rich humus  and moisture and the humidity is also supporting the  rich distribution of ferns in the moist shady condition  (Saleem et al., 2000).

Further, due to the availability of  favorable climatic conditions and suitable habitats for  growth and development, the Pteridophytes are  widely distributed in the valley. Forests are the most  valuable and vagarious declining natural resource of  Pakistan. Most of the forest management studies  depict that forests owned by the farmers are  comparatively well managed than the state forests.  Liverworts and Hornworts collectively constitute a  non-vascular group of plants called Bryophyte  (Crandall and Stotler, 1980). The Plant body is  gametophyte which is relatively small, ranging from 2  cm to 20 cm long.

Bryophytes play an important,  though inconspicuous role in the cycles of nature.  Some of them provide food for herbivorous mammals,  birds and other animals.11 fungal species are isolated  from rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere regions of  Pteris vittata (Yasmin and Saxena, 1990). Comparing  to bryophytes they are somehow resistant to drought  and even some ferns are serious weeds and their  control is a problem as Salvinia molesta (Jayanth,  1987). A study was conducted in a greenhouse to  investigate the effect of defoliation and injury on  dormant buds and apices of Schizoid fern (Punetha,  1987).

Some of the members of this group are  economically important e.g. Christella parasitica,  Marsilea minuta, Pteris vittata and Salvinia molesta  are used to fix green plant tissues (Devi et al. 1994),  others are toxic and can cause diseases.

The term ̋  Ethnobotany ̏ coined by an American Botanist J  William Hershberger in 1896 (Cotton, 1996).  Ethnobotany is a branch of biological science that  show medicinal relationship exist between people and  plants. German physician Leopold Glueck was the first  person to work on the traditional uses of medicinal  plants in Sarajevo (Bosnia). In the 19th century he  reported the uses of plants.

Their published work is  considered to be the first ethnobotanical work  (Chaudhary, et al 2008). In last century ethnobotany is  developed to a more practical field from a  documentation field of science, and play vital role in  survival of plants resources and protection (Khan  2011). From evidence it is demonstrated that people  living an area for long period of time have knowledge  about local flora and ecology (Khan 2011).  

Ethnobotany play a vital role and become essential part of our world, new ethnobotanical research prove that people used traditional drugs for treatment of various diseases since time immemorial and plants are a very important element of tribal life (Amrit 2007,  Bourdy 2008). 

2. Material and Methods 

2.1 Study Area 

An extensive study was carried out on the flora of  Smarbagh Colony from August 2021 to September  2022. The area was frequently visited for the  collection of data belonging to the plant diversity of  the flora. The data for the research project was  obtained in two phases. 

2.2 Fieldwork (Phase-1) 

In this phase all the vascular plants of the hill were  thoroughly collected. The plant specimens were  identified with the help of available literature,  herbarium specimens and Flora of Pakistan. The  sampled plants were processed according to the  international standard. The ethnobotanical  information regarding all aspects of plant use of the  flora of Sheen Ghar was obtained. This information’s  was collected through a questionnaire, observations,  interviews and guided field walks. 

2.3 Observations 

The local community has a very rich knowledge of  plant use, to know the practices of indigenous  knowledge, repeated surveys including transect  walks, discussions and informal talks with hakims and  local people were made. Field observations include  local methods of plant collection, harvesting time,  drying, processing, storage and utilization. This  information enabled me to develop a broader envision  of the interactions of local people with plant  resources. A formal questionnaire was developed  keeping in view the experiences of observations for  the development of more systematic data and field  surveys. A pre-test for the application of the  questionnaire was applied at the same time all the  plants were collected during flowering or fruiting  stage and refine the same for the large-scale  application in the field. At the same time all the plants  were collected during the flowering or fruiting stage  and consequently were poisoned, pressed and  preserved.

2.4 Interviews 

A field diary was used to record the data during  interviews with the plant collectors, local people and  hakims. The interviews and group discussions were  held with villagers that provided valuable information  including all sorts of plant use. The structured and  semi-structured questionnaires were adopted in  interviews to get participatory, qualitative as well as  Quantitative data about the plant resources and their  utilization by the local people during the survey. 

2.4 Survey of vascular plants 

The research area was extensively visited during  flowering and fruiting seasons of the year. Vascular  plant diversity information that includes  Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms was  obtained throughout the year at appropriate seasons.  The relevant data pertaining to the locality, habitat,  habit, family, scientific, local names, part used, and  other valuable information were recorded through a  questionnaire. The plant specimens were pressed in  newspaper and dried. The collected plant specimens  were identified. High-resolution pictures were  selected from the photographs of the plants taken in the research area. The specimens were deposited in  the herbarium of Ghazi Umara Khan Degree College  Samarbagh Dir Lower. 

2.6 Ethnobotanical Survey 

The plant specimens collected from the area were  classified on the basis of their overall utility in the  valley. The ethnobotanical information was collected  through interviews of the inhabitants, herd men,  hakims, and plant collectors on the basis of age and gender group of the area. The information includes  plant usage is medicinal, fuel, timbers, fodder, fruits,  plants, vegetables, condiments, spices, plants used as  ornamental, fences, dyes, and poisonous. 

2.7 Documentation and analysis of the obtained data  (Phase-2) 

Analysis and Documentation of Research Data: 

The information collected during the survey of the  area was analyzed and documented according to the  set procedures. The data obtained regarding plant use from the area was checked and compared with the  available literature and hence reconfirmed. This information’s was arranged according to their indigenous uses and is presented in tabulated form. The dependence of the local population on plant resources, their ethnomedicinal and cultural aspects  as well as their conservation status was also  documented. The inventory for various uses includes  voucher numbers, scientific names, local names,  family, habitat, habit, part used and flowering season. 


3.1 Floristic Inventory 

The floristic inventory is the complete checklist of  species of a defined geographical area and it gives an  outlook of the vegetation type of the area. Plant  resources are severely affected by anthropogenic  activities, tillage practices, natural calamities and  other biotic and abiotic influences. The present  research is first-hand information on the flora of the  area. A total of 57 species belong to 43 families.

Out  of 59 families the 39 families belong to angiosperm and one family belongs to gymnosperm and three  families belong to Pteridophytes. Out of 59 families of angiosperms, the 4 families belong to Monocot and 47  families belong to dicot. Rosaceae family have largest species in the study area which contain 7 species followed by Poaceae and Lamiaceae have 5 species.  Asteraceae and Rutaceae have 4 species and  Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae and Urticaceae have 3  species. Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Ebenacaeae,  Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Moraceae and  Solanaceae have 2 species, while the remaining families show the lowest number of species. 


Plants No:

Family name: Adiantaceae  

Botanical name: Adiantum capillus veneris L. 

Local name: Bibi Aisha sanra 

Part used: Fronds  

Local uses: Fronds juice used in cough and sore throat. 

Plants No:

Family name: Dryopteridaceae 

Botanical name: Dryopteris serrato-dentata (Bedd.)  Hay 

Local name: Kwanjay 

Part used: Rhizome 

Local uses: Rhizome is anthelminthic.

Plants No: 3 

Family name: Equisetaceae 

Family name: Cyperaceae 

Botanical name: Equisetum arvense L. 

Local name: Bandakay  

Part used: Shoots 

Local uses: The extracts of shoots are mixed with  mustard oil and used as a hair tonic and against lice. It  is used for cleaning and washing utensils. GYMNOSPERMS 

Plants No: 4 

Family: Pinaceae 

Botanical name: Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D. Don) G.  Don  

Local name: Diyar  

Parts used: Oil, Bark, gum and wood 

Local uses: The wood is durable and resistant to white  ants, fungal attacks, and water. It yields the strongest  timber and is employed extensively in buildings, for  making railway sleepers, carriages, and for making  bridges.  

Plants No:

Family name: Pinaceae 

Botanical name: Pinus roxburghii Sargent 

Local name: Nakhtar  

Part used: The whole tree 

Local uses: The resin locally known, as “Jaula” is a  stimulant used for ulcers, snakebites, scorpion stings, and skin diseases. It is a blood purifier. Wood is an  aromatic, antiseptic, deodorant, diaphoretic, and  stimulant, and is used in the burning of the body,  cough, fainting, and ulceration. Wood is used as  timber in construction, making a good fuel. 


Plants No:

Family name: Acoraceae 

Botanical name: Acorus calamus L. 

Local name: Khawaja  

Part used: Rhizome  

Local uses: Rhizomes are emetic and a good remedy  for flatulence, colic and diarrhea. It is also used against  snake bites.  

Plants No:

Family name: Araceae 

Botanical name: Colocacia esculenta (L.) Schott

Local name: Kachalo 

Part used: Corn 

Local uses: Corn is used as vegetable. 

Plants No:

Botanical name: Cyperus rotundus L. 

Local name: Shamookha 

Part used: Tuber and rhizome 

Local uses: Used for the treatment of diarrhea,  diabetes, malaria.  

Plants No:

Family name: Poaceae 

Botanical name: Avena sativa L. 

Local name: Jawdar 

Part used: Seeds 

Local uses: use as energy booster. Correct sleeping  disorder. 

Plants No: 10 

Family name: Poaceae (Gramineae)  

Botanical name: Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pres.

Local name: Kabal/drab  

Part used: Whole plant 

Local uses: It is used along with rose flower in  jaundice. It is also used for piles and dysentery.

Plants No: 11 

Family name: Poaceae (Gramineae) 

Botanical name: Saccharum bengalensis Retz.  Local name: Nal  

Part used: Whole plant  

Local uses: It is used as hedge, soil binder and for  various utensils. 

Plants No: 12 

Family name: Poaceae (Gramineae) 

Botanical name: Sorghum helepense (L.) Pers.

Local name: Dadam 

Part used: Whole plant  

Local uses: It is used as fodder and hey fodder. 

Plants No: 13 

Family name: Poaceae 

Botanical name: Zea mays L. 

Local name: Jawar 

Part used: Seeds 

Local uses: used for diabetes, high blood pressure,  fatigue and high cholesterol level. Seeds as used as a  major source of food. 


Plants No: 14 

Family name: Anacardiaceae  

Botanical name: Pistacia chinensis Bunge spp.  integerrima (J.L.S) Rech. f.

Local Name: Kikar 

Part used: Insect-infected galls  

Local Uses: Fruits and gall extract is given in jaundice.  Leaves are used as fodder for cattle. Wood yields  timber, and is used for making furniture. Branches  serve the purpose of fuel wood. 

Plants No: 15 

Family name: Amaranthaceae 

Botanical name: Amaranthus viridis L. 

Local name: Chalwayi 

Part used: The whole plant 

Local uses: Cooked as pot-herb, used as an emollient. 

Plants No: 16 

Family name: Amaranthaceae 

Botanical name: Chenopodium ambrosioides L. 

Local name: Sakha boty 

Part used: shoot 

Local uses: The young shoots are used as laxative and  against malaria. 

Plants No: 17 

Family name: Apiaceae 

Botanical name: Foenicullum vulgare Mill. Local name: Kagainali  

Part used: Fruit, leaves, seeds 

Local uses: Seed oil is used as vermicide and  stomachache. Seed is the source of volatile oil. Leaves  are used as diuretic and digestive. Fruit juice is used to  improve eyesight. 

Plants No: 18 

Family name: Araliaceae  

Botanical name: Hedera nepalensis K. Koch.

Local Name: Perwati 

Part used: Whole plant  

Local uses: Leaves and berries are stimulant, cathartic,  and diaphoretic. Dry leaves are used to stimulate  sores. Berries are purgative and are used in febrile  disorders. Aphrodisiac, Nerve tonic, General tonic,  and Depurative. 

Plants No: 19 

Family name: Asclepiadaceae 

Botanical name: Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait.f.

Local name: Spulmai 

Part used: Latex of leaves, leaves and roots

Local uses: latex is used as purgative. In small amount  its seeds along with red chili and opium are also used  for cholera. Milky latex of stem is used in eczema and  ring worm. 

Plants No: 20

Family name: Asteraceae 

Botanical name: Artimisia absinthium L. 

Part used: leaves  

Local uses: used for dyspepsia, and nephrothy 

Plants No: 21 

Family name: Asteraceae (Compositae) 

Botanical name: Artemisia vulgaris L. 

Local name: Tarkha  

Part used: Leaves  

Local uses: Leaves are anthelminthic and useful for  curing skin diseases. 

Plants No: 22 

Family name: Asteraceae 

Botanical name: Helianthus annuus L. 

Local name: Nwar parast 

Part used: Whole plant 

Local uses: Oil is used for cooking. Plant is ornamental. 

Plants No: 23 

Family name: Asteraceae 

Botanical name: Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth.  & Hook.f. ex A. Gray 

Local name: 

Part used: Whole plant 

Local use: Used in the treatment of gum sores,  hemorrhoids, cancer, and skin problems. Also used as  an ornamental plant. 

Plants No: 24 

Family name: Begnoniaceae 

Botanical name: Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers

Local name: Khaista boty 

Part used: The whole plant 

Local uses: Used as infusion or decoction, also used as  a general tonic. Also used as a treatment for diarrhea,  cough etc. Also used as an ornamental plant. 

Plants No: 25 

Family name: Berberidaceae  

Botanical name: Berberis lycium Royle 

Local name: Kowary 

Part used: Root, Fruits and Stem 

Local uses: The roots are grinded into powder and the  powders is placed on wounds for early recovery.  

Plants No: 26 

Family name: Brassicaceae 

Botanical name: Lepidium pinnatifidum Ledeb.

Part used: leaves, seed 

Local uses: Seeds are used for painful menstruation in  Women. Leaves are cooked as vegetables. Whole  plant is effect in constipation and pile. 

Plants No: 27 

Family name: Brassicaceae 

Botanical name: Nasturtium officinale R.Br. 

Local name: Talmeera,  

Part used: Vegetative portion  

Local uses: A vegetable, salad and pot-herb. It is antiscorbic, appetizer, and diuretic and used in chest  infections and stomachaches. 

Plants No: 28 

Family name: Buxaceae 

Botanical name: Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Muell.  Arg. 

Local name: Shenaoly  

Part used: Leaves,  

Local uses: Used as a laxative and a blood purifier and  for relieving muscular pain. Used as a useful soil  binder. Leaves are laxative and blood purifier and  good remedy for muscular pains. 

Plants No: 29 

Family name: Cactaceae 

Botanical name: Opuntia dillenii Haw. 

Local name: Zaqqum 

Part Used: Phylloclade’s, fruits  

Local uses: The poultice made from the phylloclade is  used for extracting guinea worms. The fruits are  edible, demulcent and expectorant. The ripe fruit juice  is a remedy for asthma and whooping cough. The  plant is grown as hedge plant in some places. 

Plants No: 30 

Family name: Cannabaceae 

Botanical name: Cannabis sativa L. 

Local name: Bung 

Part used: Leaves, Bark and seeds 

Local uses: Warmed leaves are tied over the affected  parts of the body for the treatment of spasm. Juice  added with milk and nuts to make “Tandai” a cold  drink which produces a pleasant excitement. It is  sedative, tonic, narcotic, anodyne, refrigerant, and  antispasmodic. 

Plants No: 31 

Family name: Capparaceae 

Botanical name: Capparis spinosa L. 

Local name: Wakha 

Part used: Roots & Leaves 

Local uses: Used as folk medicine to treat diabetes,  hepatitis, and arthritis. 

Plants No: 32 

Family name: Cucurbitaceae 

Botanical name: Cucurbita pepo L.  

Local name: Kadoo 

Part used: Leaves & Fruit 

Local uses; used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic,  anti-diabetic. Used as a source of food

Plants No: 33 

Family name: Ebenacaeae 

Botanical name: Diospyrus kaki L. 

Local name: Farsi man/Ziar Amlok  

Part used: Fruits, wood  

Local uses: It is a very common commercial fruit tree.  It is used in dry and fresh form and is very delicious. It  is a laxative. Fruit stimulates gastric activities, treat  diarrhea, piles, and has laxative properties. 

Plants No: 34 

Family name: Ebenacaeae 

Botanical name: Diospyrus lotus L. 

Local name: Tor Amlok  

Part used: Fruit, wood, leaves 

Local uses: The fruits are edible, carminative,  purgative and beneficial in blood diseases, gonorrhea,  and leprosy. Infusion of the fruit is used as gargle in  aphthae or stomatitis and sore throat. 

Plants No: 35 

Family name: Euphorbiaceae 

Botanical name: Euphorbia helioscopia L. Local name: Mandarro  

Part used: Shoots, Seeds and latex 

Local Uses: Cathartic and anthelmintic.  

The juice is applied to eruptions. Latex is poisonous  and causes swelling on skin. It also causes irritation. It  is used as a fish poison. The seeds grinded squeezed  and extract its oil and used as purgative. 

Plants No: 36 

Family name: Euphorbiaceae 

Botanical name: Ricinus communis L. 

Local name: Kharkhanda 

Part used: Leaves, seeds, oil 

Local uses: The leaves are emetic, narcotic, poisonous  and purgative. A poultice made from the leaves is  applied to swellings. Castor oil is purgative; oil is given  for constipation and to mothers before and after  childbirth.

Plants No: 37 

Family name: Fabaceae  

Botanical name: Amphicarpea bracteata (L.) Fernald

Local name: Moot 

Part used: Roots 

Local uses: used for the treatment of diarrhea.

Plants No: 38 

Family name: Fabaceae 

Botanical name: Robinia pseudo acacia L.

Local Names: Toor Kikar  

Part used: The whole plant  

Local uses: The wood is heavy, hard, strong, and  durable. It is used for general construction and as a  fuel. The plant is poisonous, acting as a purgative and  emetic. The flowers are a good source of honey. 

Plants No: 39 

Family name: Fagaceae 

Botanical name: Quercus baloot Griffth. 

Local Name: Ghuara Serai  

Part used: Wood, nuts (acorns)  

Local uses: The seeds are edible, astringent and  diuretic, Also Used in asthma, diarrhea, indigestion  and gonorrhea. Prevent excessive dejection in case of  heaviness in the stomach. 

Plants No: 40 

Family name: Fagaceae 

Botanical name: Quercus brantii Lindl. 

Local name: Khar boty 

Part used: The whole plant 

Local uses: Used as fuel wood, charcoal, and timber  hardwood. 

Plants No: 41 

Family name: Fumariaceae  

Botanical name: Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley 

Local name: Papra/shatara  

Part used: Shoot 

Local uses: The plant is used as a pot herb. Medicinally used as a blood purifier; diaphoretic and antipyretic. 

Plants No: 42 

Family name: Juglandaceae 

Botanical name: Juglans regia L. 

Local name: Ghooz 

Part used: Nuts, bark, leaves, and wood.

Local uses: The bark is used for cleaning teeth and  sore throat. The leaves are also used as lipsticks. It is  also used as a dye. A decoction obtained from the  leaves or fruit is used as antispasmodic.  

Plants No: 43 

Family name: Lamiaceae

Botanical name: Ajugba bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. 

Local name: Gooti 

Part used: Whole plant 

Local uses: The plant is used in internal colic, angina,  and for the treatment of aches.

Plants No: 44 

Family name: Lamiaceae 

Botanical name: Mentha arvensis  

Local name: Pudina 

Part used: The whole plant 

Local uses: The green and dried leaves are used as  antispasmodic, refrigerant, stimulant, diuretic, and  aromatic. The decoction of the leaves and lemon grass  is prepared and used as a febrifuge in fever. It is a  honey-bee species. 

Plants No: 45 

Family name: Lamiaceae 

Botanical name: Mentha longifolia (L.) L.

Local name: Villanay  

Part used: The whole plant 

Local uses: A powder made from the dried leaves is  used in chutney, as a stimulant, an anti-rheumatic,  aromatic, flavoring agent, stomachache, and  carminative. 

Plants No: 46 

Family name: Lamiaceae 

Botanical name: Osmium bacilicum L.  

Local name: Kashmalae  

Part used: Vegetative portions  

Local uses: It is used for toothache, earache and  diuretic. Plant is also used as ornamental and for  incense /perfume. 

Plants No: 47 

Family name: Lamiaceae 

Botanical name: Thymus linearis Benth. 

Local name: Spairkay  

Part used: Fruits  

Local uses: The fruits are used for colds, coughs and  bronchial troubles. It can also use for the treatment of  fever, pain, and inflammation. 

Plants No: 48 

Family name: Malvaceae 

Botanical name: Hibiscus esculentus (L.) Moench

Local name: Bandai 

Part used: whole plant

Local uses: used for wounds and boils. Leaves are  diuretic, emollient. Fruit is edible. 

Plants No: 49  

Family name: Meliaceae 

Botanical name: Melia azedarach L. 

Local name: Tora shandai. 

Part used: Bark, leaves  

Local Uses: The decoction of the leaves is employed  in hysteria and for skin diseases. The leaves and  flowers are effective for relieving nervous headache. 

Plants No: 50 

Family name: Mimosaceae 

Botanical name: Acacia modesta Wall. 

Local name: Palousa  

Part used: Gum, sticks  

Local uses: The gum obtained from the bark is used  as a tonic and stimulant. Usually, the natives mix the  gum with wheat flour, sugar is added and roasted in  desi ghee, especially given to women, who give birth  to new babies. Ash is used in snuff preparation. 

Plants No: 51 

Family name: Moraceae 

Botanical name: Ficus carica L. 

Local name: Inzar  

Part used: Fruits, latex 

Local uses: Fruits, both in dry or fresh form, are edible.  It is laxative and demulcent, used in constipation, piles  and urinary bladder problems. The latex is used  against warts and to remove spines and thorns easy. 

Plants No: 52 

Family name: Moraceae 

Botanical name: Morus alba L. 

Local name: Spin Toot  

Part used: Fruits, leaves, branches, trunk 

Local uses: The fruits are eaten both fresh and dry.  They are a laxative and purgative. The leaves are  emollient and used for cleaning the throat and as  cooling agent. Main source of fuel wood. 

Plants No: 53 

Family name: Myrtaceae 

Botanical name: Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.

Local name: Laachi 

Part used: leaves, seed 

Local uses: Used as cough remedy and expectorant.  Also used as tonic, astringent, antiseptic. 

Plants No: 54 

Family name: Oleaceae 

Botanical name: Olea ferruginea Royle 

Local name: Khona 

Part used: Fruits, leaves and trunk 

Local uses: The fruit is antidiabetic. The leaves are  used for toothache and throats soar. The leaves and  bark are bitter and used as a astringent, antiseptic,  antiperiodic, diuretic and tonic. 

Plants No: 55 

Family name: Oxalidaceae  

Botanical name: Oxalis corniculata L. 

Local name: Grady tarookay 

Part used: Leaves 

Local uses: Used for stomach problems, fever, and  dysentery. It is refrigerant, vermifuge and flavoring  agent. 

Plants No: 56 

Family name: Papilionaceae 

Botanical name: Indigofera heterantha Wall. ex  Brand. 

Local name: Ghoraja 

Part used: Whole plant 

Local uses: The leaves, shoots and flowers used as  demulcent, refrigerant and anti-cancerous. The roots  used as diuretic, carminative and the root-bark in  urinary diseases. 

Plants No: 57 

Family name: Plantaginaceae 

Botanical name: Plantago lanceolata L. 

Local name: Ghawajabai 

Part used: Leaves, fruits, seeds  

Local uses: Extract of leaves is applied to sores,  wounds and inflamed surfaces. The seeds are laxative  and are used for dysentery and mouth diseases. The  leaves slightly rubbed and used as antifungal in  athlete’s foot disease. 

Plants No: 58 

Family name: Plantanaceae 

Botanical name: Platanus oriantalis L. 

Local Name: Chinar  

Part used: Bark  

Local uses: The bark is given for toothache and  diarrhea. Bark is used in rheumatism. Bark boiled with vinegar is used in dysentery and diarrhea. Powdered  leaves are used in ophthalmic. 

Plants No: 59 

Family name: Polygonaceae 

Botanical name: Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delabre

Local name: Palpolak

Part used: Whole plant 

Local uses: used as astringent, analgesic and  hemostatic. Also used for the treatment of kidney stones, edema and asthma. 

Plants No: 60 

Family name: Polygonaceae 

Botanical name: Rumex dentatus L. 

Local name: Shalkhy 

Part used: Leaves, roots  

Local uses: Plant is used as pot-herb. It is diuretic,  astringent and demulcent. It soothes the irritation  caused by Urtica dioca, which often grows in  association with it. Roots are astringent. 

Plants No: 61 

Family name: Polygonaceae 

Botanical name: Rumex hastatus D. Don 

Local name: Tarookay  

Part used: Leaves, young shoots  

Local uses: Fresh leaves are crushed and used to stop  bleeding from wounds. It is used in chutneys and as a  flavoring agent. The plant is used as antiemetic,  carminative, purgative, astringent and diuretic. 

Plants No: 62 

Family name: Portulaceae 

Botanical name: Portulaca oleracea L. 

Local name: Warkhari 

Part used: the whole plant 

Local uses: Used as febrifuge, antiseptic, vermifuge.  Also used as an antibacterial, antioxidant. Used as a  source of food. 

Plants No: 63 

Family name: Myrsinaceae 

Botanical name: Myrsine africana L.  

Local name: Maru rang  

Part used: Leaves, fruits  

Local uses: The fruits are edible and anthelmintic.  Leaves are used for fragrance in tea, as spices,  carminative, appetizer, flavoring agent, and digestive. 

Plants No: 64  

Family name: Punicaceae  

Botanical name: Punica granatum L. 

Local name: Ananghorai 

Part used: Fruits, bark, leaves 

Local uses: Fresh leaves are crushed and the extract is  used in dysentery, skin diseases, checking of bleeding  from nose, and useful as eyewash. The fruit pericarp  is used for whooping cough. 

Plants No: 65 

Family name: Ranunculaceae 

Botanical name: Ranunculus laetus wall. Ex Hook.f &  J. W. Thomson 

Local name: Ziar goly 

Part used: Leaves 

Local uses: plant juice are antifungal and antimalarial,  used in intermittent fevers, gout, and as thma. Paste  made from leaves used for gas trouble and joints pain. 

Plants No: 66 

Family name: Rhamnaceae  

Botanical name: Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C.  Jhonston  

Local name: Mamanra  

Part used: Leaves, bark, fruits, roots  

Local uses: Decoction of leaves is used as stimulant  and blood purifier. Root decoction is very effective in  jaundice. Leaves are used as fodder for cattle. 

Plants No: 67 

Family name: Rhamnaceae 

Botanical name: Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew. 

Local name: Elanai  

Part used: Roots, fruits  

Local uses: The roots are used for curing jaundice. The  fruits are edible and used for gas troubles. Also grown  as hedge plant. 

Plants No: 68 

Family name: Rhamnaceae 

Botanical name: Zizyphus sativa Gaertn. 

Local name: Markhani 

Part used: Fruit 

Local uses: use in treatment of Jaundice, diarrhea,  Ulcer and fever. 

Plants No: 69 

Family name: Rosaceae 

Botanical name: Cydonia oblonga Mill.  

Local Names: Boye  

Part used: Fruits, Leaves, bark  

Local uses: Leaves, buds and bark are considered as  astringent. Seed is demulcent, used in dysentery,  diarrhea, sore throat and fever. 

Plants No: 70 

Family name: Rosaceae 

Botanical name: Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindley.

Local names: Lokat  

Part used: Fruits 

Local uses: The fruit is edible; the tree is cultivated as  an ornamental tree and for its fruit.

Plants No: 71 

Family name: Rosaceae 

Botanical name: Malus pumila Mill.  

Local name: Manra  

Part used: Fruits, flowers, wood  

Local uses: Valuable commercial fruit, purgative,  source of iron, expectorant, used in jams, jellies,  marmalades and good for the heart. 

Plants No: 72 

Family name: Rosaceae 

Botanical name: Prunus armeniaca L. 

Local name: Khubani/asharay  

Part used: Fruits, wood, leaves, seeds  

Local uses: The fruits and seeds are eaten both fresh  and dry. Dried fruit is refrigerant and laxative. It is  used for fever. 

Plants No: 73 

Family name: Rosaceae 

Botanical name: Prunus domestica L.  

Local name: Alocha 

Part used: Fruit 

Local uses: The fruit is febrifuge, laxative and soma  chic. Dried fruit can easily relieve constipation. 

Plants No: 75 

Family name: Rosaceae 

Botanical name: Rosa brunonii Lindl. 

Local name: Kuruch 

Part used: Flowers, branches  

Local uses: It is aphrodisiac and beneficial in bilious  affections and burning of the skin. The root is  beneficial in eye diseases. Used in skin and eye  diseases. 

Table no 1: Floristic list of the ethnomedicinal collected plant of the study area.

SL. No Botanical Name Local name Study area Species% Family Name 
1. Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Bibi Aisha sanra Asharodheri 1.81 Adiantaceae
2. Dryopteris serrato dentata(Brdd.) Hay.Kwanjay Asharodheri 1.81 Dryopteridaceae
3. Equisetum arvense L. Bandakay Garband 1.81 Equisetaceae
4. Cedrus  deodara(Roxb.exD.Don)Diyar Shenghar 3.63 Pinaceae
5. Pinus roxburghii Sargent Nakhtar Shenghar 3.63 Pinaceae
6. Acorus calamus L. Khawaja Asharodheri SICpUshhbKj8REs4xWbkXBpCOQ4QVkmLl6l3NYx8iJabXG2AoAcyNRjG ro0Cqs LxnZc LUa0bDeOV rXGAAcayIaKmfH2lZ1w7HD00Py2FVTZeg2dXKUrF96h0zMwmqIf19rK8yl4z5FEoqry3J o1.81 Acoraceae
7. Colocacia esculenta(L.) Schott Kachalo Asharodheri 1.81 Acoraceae
8. Cyperus rotundusL. Della Lajbouk 1.81 Cyperaceae
9. Avena sativa L. Jaodar Garband 9.09 Poaceae 
10. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Kabal Lajbouk 9.09 Poaceae
11. Saccharum bengalense Retz Nal Lajbouk 9.09 Poaceae
12. Sorghum halepense(L.) Pers. Dadam Garband 9.09 Poaceae
13. Zea mays L. Jawar Shenghar 9.09 Poaceae
14. Pistacia chinensis Bunge ssp. Kikar Asharodheri 1.81 Anacardiaceae
15. Amaranthus viridis L. Chalwayi Asharodheri 3.63 Amaranthaceae
16. Foenicullum vulgare Mill Kagainali Ghwargai 1.81 Apiaceae
17. Fumaria indica Sha tara Asharodheri 1.81 Fumariaceae
18. Hedera nepalensis K. Koch. Perwati Asharodheri 1.81 Araliaceae
19. Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait.f Spulmai Morani 1.81 Asclepiadaceae
20. Artemisia absinthium L. Asharodheri 7.27 Asteraceae
21. Artemisia vulgaris L. Tarkha Garband 7.27 Asteraceae
22. Helianthus annuus L. Nwar parast Asharodheri 7.27 Asteraceae
23. Pyrostegia venusta (Ker  Gawl.)Khaista boty Dermal 1.81 Begnoniaceae
24. Berberis lycium Royle Kowary Ondesa 1.81 Berberidaceae
25. Lepidium pinnatifidum Ledeb. Alam Asharodheri 3.63 Brassicaceae

26. Nasturtium officinale R. Br. Tarmira Lajbouk 3.63 Brassicaceae
27. Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Shenaoly Asharodheri 1.81 Buxaceae
28. Opuntia dillenii Haw. Zoqam Ghwargay 1.81 Cactaceae
29. Cannabis sativa L. Bung Darmal 1.81 Cannabaceae
30. Capparis spinosa L. Wakha Lajbouk k 1.81 Cyperaceae
31. Curcurbita pepo L. Kado Lajbouk 3.63 Cucurbitaceae
32. Diospyrus KakiZiar Amlok Asharodheri 3.63 Ebenacaeae
33. Ricinus communis L. Kharkhanda Biyari 3.63 Euphorbiaceae
34. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Mandaroo Asharodheri 3.63 Euphorbiaceae
35. Amphicarpaea bracteata (L) Moot Lajbouk k 3.63 Fabaceae 
36. Robinia pseudo acacia L. Tor kikar Asharodheri 3.63 Fabaceae 
37. Quercus baloot Griffth. Ghuara Sera Shen ghar 3.63 Fagaceae
38. Quercus barntiiLindl Khar boty Darmal 3.63 Fagaceae
39. Juglans regia Ghuz Garband 3.63 Juglandaceae
40. Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex  Benth.Guti Garband 9.09 Lamiaceae
41. Mentha arvensis L. Pondina Lajbouk 9.09 Lamiaceae
42. Mentha longifolia(L.) Villanay Lajbouk 9.09 Lamiaceae
43. Osmium bacilicum L. Kashmalae Asharodheri 9.09 Lamiaceae
44. Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex  Benth.Guti Garband 9.09 Lamiaceae
45. Mentha arvensis L. Pondina Lajbouk 9.09 Lamiaceae
46. Hibiscus  esculentus(L.)MoenchBandi Lajbouk 1.81 Malvaceae
47. Melia azedarach L. Torashandai. Asharodheri 1.81 Meliaceae
48. Acacia modestaWall. Palosa Morani 1.81 Mimosaceous
49. Ficus carica L. Inzar Shen ghar 3.63 Moraceae
50. Morus alba L. Spin toot Garband 3.63 Moraceae
51. Persicaria hydropiper (L.) palpolak Lajbouk 5.45 Polygonaceae
52. Rumex hastatus D. Don Tarookay fZAp XR 1CEbHj7z k1r0AXeWfFsdmZScU5MrRUuRNQohcufajRHQajvuv jZSsmInRMtxsgTIBUUE2qN0Bl9OebwatXks3VZ7DghMB9Zf11yvJMHTtQQY1RotVv0v705VIBy EJ52KykFAVPu L9ocAsharodheri 5.45 Polygonaceae
53. Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C. Mamanra Garband 5.45 Rhamnaceae
54. Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew. Eanley Morani 5.45 Rhamnaceae
55. Zizyphus sativa Gaertn. Markhani Shen ghar 5.45 Rhamnaceae

higAPMAsrRL9ER3ZMdVRRSZlnzuLWd0dyVrHeXCJu7mZ L66taKpvmxMgVfzOx32

Fig: 1. Above graph showing the percentage value of the medicinal plant of the study area

image 80
Cheek List of Ethnobotanical Plants of Tehsil Colony, Samarbagh, District Dir  Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan 13

Fig: 2. Show the family composition of the study flied 

image 81
Cheek List of Ethnobotanical Plants of Tehsil Colony, Samarbagh, District Dir  Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan 14

Fig: 3. Show the distribution of plant Families 

3. Discussion 

Pakistan has natural resources that have been gifted by nature with use and advantage of living organisms.  The flora of Pakistan is very rich and diverse because  of its various climatic and soil conditions and multiple  ecological regions. About 6,000 species of wild plants  reported from Pakistan out of which about 400 to 600  species are used for medicinal purposes, 23 species of  gymnosperms and 128 species of Pteridophytes,  about 4492 dicots species of flowering plants and  round about 1508 monocots species are considered to  be medicinally important (Jan et al., 2012).

It is clear  that dominant plants species are decrease day by day  due to overpopulation, lack of awareness about the  use of the plants by the local inhabitants. The people  of the area used plants as limber and timber and cattle  fodder. The majority of plants used for these purposes  are Mentha arvensis, Platanus orientalis, Dodonaea  viscosa, Cedrus deodara, Pinus ruxburgii, Berberis lyceum, Olea ferruginea, Ricinus communis etc.

These plants have been studied and recorded for their  medicinal uses like fever, asthma, dysentery etc. The  results showed a similar relationship with our study  due to the reason such as Mentha arvensis used for  dysentery which is a similar to our finding. The people  of the study area widely used medicinal plants for  various human ailments. The current study showed  that consistent indigenous knowledge on  ethnomedicinal plants used in the treatment of basic  human healthcare systems existed here. Most of the  people live in the rural communities in the remote  areas and away from the modern healthcare facilities. 

In the study area, the local residents are heavily  dependent on medicinal plants for health issues and  so the demand of ethnomedicinal plants increases day  by day (Hassan, 2017). The importance of biodiversity  conservation is therefore fundamental and strategies  of sustainable use should be considered for long-termn availability of medicinal plants here and even in the  whole country.

The possible solutions for the  conservation of biodiversity and ethnomedicinal flora  of the study area, to strengthen national, regional, and  local networking activities regarding conservation and  sustainable utilization. There must be cooperation  among the government, non-government  organizations, and local community to help  conservation of medicinal plants in the area. 

Furthermore, the fast populations of the study area  are often unaware about the importance of  biodiversity conservation; they also show poor  selection of fuel wood species. There is need to re introduce the indigenous knowledge about the  conservation and management of medicinal plants  resources. Even though there is no available database  to deposit the documented traditional knowledge in  the study area, elderly people were always pleased  when we asked them about medicinal plants and their  therapeutic uses. Unfortunately, the present  generations lack of interest in the flied of medicinal  plants.

We suggest that the traditional knowledge  from the elder people should be documented along  with quality photography. In school, college and  universities various awareness sessions (in the form  conference and seminars) should be arranged for the  current generation. The area heavy destruction of  plants species should be conserved carefully. Future  investigations should be carried out in order to ensure  safe therapy concerning medicinal plants. 


Al-Rajhi, N.; Khafaga, Y.; El-Husseiny, J.; Saleem, M,;  Mourad, W.; Al-Otieschan, A.; Al-Amro A. Early stage carcinoma of oral tongue: prognostic factors for local control and survival. Oral  Oncology. 2000, 1;36(6):508-14. 

Chitra, M.; Sukumar, E.; Suja, V.; Devi, S. Antitumor,  anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of  embelin, a plant product. Chemotherapy. 1994; 40(2):109-13. 

Cotton, C.M. Ethnobotany: principles and applications. John Wiley & Sons; 1996. 

Crandall-Stotler, B. Morphogenetic Designs and a  Theory of Bryophyte Origins and Divergence  Barbara Crandall-Stotler. BioScience., 1980, 1,  30(9), 580-5. 

Flores, N.; Jiménez, I.A.; Giménez, A.; Ruiz, G.; Gutiérrez, D.; Bourdy, G.; Bazzocchi, I.L. Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their antiparasitic activity. Journal of Natural  Products. 2008, 26, 71(9), 1538-43. 

Habib, A.H.; Ondeck, C.L.; Chaudhary, P.; Bockstaller, M.R.; McHenry, M.E. Evaluation of iron cobalt/ferrite core-shell nanoparticles for cancer thermotherapy. Journal of Applied  Physics. 2008, 1, 103(7), 07A307. 

Jayanth, K.P. Introduction and establishment of  Zygogramma bicolorata on Parthenium  hysterophorus at Bangalore, India. Current  Science. 1987, 56(7), 310-1. 

Khan, K.; Kunz, R.; Kleijnen, J.; Antes, G. Systematic reviews to support evidence-based medicine.  Crc press; 2011 Feb 25. 

Punetha, D.; Giles, H.; Young, L. Ethnicity and  immigrant values: Religion and language choice.  Journal of Language and Social Psychology,  1987, 6(3-4), 229-41. 

Reed, M.G.; Syverson, P.F.; Goldschlag, D.M.  Anonymous connections and onion routing.  Journal on Selected areas in Communications.  1998, 16(4), 482-94. 

Singh, H.; Klemsz, M.J.; McKercher, S.R.; Celada, A.;  Van Beveren, C.; Maki, R.A.; Dasgupta, S.; Bayry,  J.; André, S.; Dimitrov, J.D.; Kaveri, S.V. Pillars of  Immunology. Oncogene, 1990, 61, 113-24. 

Ullah, A.; Khan, K.; Khan, M.I.; Khan, A.; Alam, A.  Prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in domesticated  cattle of Distt: Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,  Pakistan. Int. J. Biosci., 2013, 3, 73-80. 

Ajaib, M.; Khan, Z.; Khan, N.A.; Wahab, M.  Ethnobotanical studies on useful shrubs of  district Kotli, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan.  Pak. J. Bot. 2010, 1, 42(3), 1407-15. 

Aljabre, S.H.; Randhawa, M.A.; Akhtar, N.; Alakloby, O.M.; Alqurashi, A.M.; Aldossary, A.  Antidermatophyte activity of ether extract of  Nigella sativa and its active principle,  thymoquinone. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.,2005, 3, 101(1-3), 116-9. 

Amjad, M.S. Ethnobotanical profiling and floristic  diversity of Bana Valley, Kotli (Azad Jammu and  Kashmir), Pakistan. Asian Pacific Journal of  Tropical Biomedicine., 2015, 1, 5(4), 292-9. 

Hamayun, M. Ethnobotanical profile of Utror and  Gabral valleys, district Swat, Pakistan.  Ethnobotanical leaflets., 2005, 2005(1), 9. 

Jan, G.; Khan, M.A.; Farhatullah, J.F.; Ahmad, M.; Jan  M.; Zafar, M. Ethnobotanical studies on some  useful plants of Dir Kohistan valleys, KPK,  Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2011 Aug 1, 43(4), 1849-52. 

Hassan, N.; Wang, D.; Shuaib, M.; Zhong, Z.; Nisar, M.; Ahmad, W.; Ahmed, S.; Khan, A. Identification and ethnobotanical survey of profitable medicinal plants used as remedy in Sangina Pakistan. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2017, 5(4), 117-23. Protection Status