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Soil Formation—The Creation Of A Treasure Chest For Plants

Dr Ahsanur Rahman, PHD

About the Author

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Dr Ahsanur Rahman, PhD, is a Bangladeshi forest researcher who has worked extensively on the ecology and management of the country's forests. He has authored or co-authored over 100 scientific papers and is widely recognized as an expert on the subject. Dr Rahman is currently working as a senior Research Officer at, Forest Protection Division (Forest Pathology), Bangladesh Forest Research Institute, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Name: Dr Ahsanur Rahman, PHD

Email: [email protected]

How is Soil Formed

Soil is one of the most important natural resources on Earth. It is the thin layer of material that covers the planet’s surface and is vital for the growth of all plants. Soil is formed by a process of weathering and erosion. Weathering is the process by which rocks and minerals are broken down into smaller pieces by the action of wind, water, and ice. Erosion is the process by which these smaller pieces of rock and mineral are moved and deposited by wind, water, and ice. Over time, this process of weathering and erosion creates a thin layer of soil on the Earth’s surface.

“The soil is that thin layer of the earth’s surface which supports few of the terrestrial and aquatic plants and hence, many animals.

The Process of Soil Formation


The process of soil formation is a slow and complex one. It is the result of physical, chemical, and biological processes that interact over long periods of time. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation include weathering and erosion. The physical process of weathering breaks down rocks and minerals into smaller pieces. The chemical process of weathering changes the composition of the rocks and minerals. The biological processes of soil formation include the activities of plants, animals, and microorganisms. These processes add organic matter to the soil, which helps to create a rich and diverse environment.

The process of soil formation is a long and complex one that is still not fully understood. It is thought to take place over many thousands of years and is influenced by a variety of factors, including the type of parent material, the climate, the topography, the flora and fauna, and the human activity in the area.

Soil is formed by the physical and chemical weathering of rocks and minerals, which breaks them down into smaller particles. This process is known as mineral weathering. Mineral weathering can be caused by a number of factors, including water, wind, ice, and organic acids.

The type of parent material has a big influence on the type of soil that forms. For example, sandy materials tend to form sandy soils, while clayey materials tend to form clayey soils. The climate also plays a role in soil formation. Warm, wet climates promote the growth of plants, which in turn help to break down rocks and minerals. Cold, dry climates tend to be less favourable for plant growth, and so the rate of soil formation is often slower in these areas.

The topography, or the shape of the land, can also affect soil formation. For example, soils on steep slopes are often shallower than those on flat surfaces, because they are more susceptible to erosion. The flora and fauna in an area can also influence soil formation. Roots help to break up rocks and minerals, while burrowing animals can mix up the soil and help to aerate it.

Human activity can also have an effect on soil formation. For example, deforestation can lead to soil erosion, while irrigation can promote the growth of plants and help to create new soils.

how soil is formed

The Different Types of Soil

There are many different types of soil, each with its own characteristics. The most common types are clay, sand, loam, and silt.

Clay soil is made up of very small particles that pack together tightly. This type of soil is often difficult to work with because it can be hard to dig through and is easily compacted. Clay soil is also known for being very fertile, meaning it is great for growing plants.

Sand soil is made up of larger particles than clay soil. This type of soil is easy to work with and is often used in gardening. Sand soil is not as fertile as clay soil, but it can still support plant growth.

Loam soil is a mix of sand, clay, and organic matter. This type of soil is easy to work with and is very fertile, making it ideal for growing plants.

Silt soil is made up of very fine particles. This type of soil is easy to work with and is very fertile, making it ideal for growing plants. However, silt soil can easily be compacted, so it is important to take care when working with it.

The Importance of Soil


Soil is one of the most important natural resources. It is a complex mixture of minerals, organic matter, water, and air. Soil forms the foundation of terrestrial ecosystems and plays a vital role in plant growth.

Soil supports plant growth by providing nutrients, water, and anchorage. Nutrients are essential for plant growth and are derived from both the soil and the atmosphere. Soil water is vital for plant growth and is obtained through precipitation and irrigation. Soil also provides anchorage for plant roots, which is essential for the stability of the plant.

Soil has a major impact on the environment. It is a major source of atmospheric carbon dioxide and is a major reservoir of water and nutrients. Soil is also a major factor in the global climate. The soil’s ability to store water and nutrients affects the amount of water and nutrients that are available for plants, and the soil’s ability to absorb and reflect sunlight affects the amount of heat that is absorbed by the earth’s surface.

Soil is a finite resource. It is estimated that there are approximately 10 billion tons of soil on the earth’s surface. This may seem like a lot, but it is a finite resource that is being depleted at an alarming rate. Soil is being lost at a rate of 30 to 40 times the rate of soil formation. The primary cause of soil loss is deforestation, which results in the loss of vegetation that protects the soil from erosion. Other causes of soil loss include overgrazing, improper irrigation, and urbanization.

The loss of soil has a number of negative consequences. It reduces the amount of land available for agriculture, increases the risk of flooding, and contributes to desertification. The loss of soil also has a number of negative impacts on the environment, including the release of greenhouse gases, the loss of biodiversity, and the degradation of ecosystem services.

Soil is a vital resource that is essential for the survival of terrestrial ecosystems. The loss of soil has a number of negative consequences that threaten the environment and the sustainability of the human race.



Soil is an important part of the environment that sustains life on Earth. It is a complex mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and countless organisms that interact to support plant life. The formation of soil is a slow process that can be impacted by a variety of human activities. deforestation, for example, can lead to erosion and the loss of valuable topsoil. careless farming practices can also degrade the quality of soil, diminishing its ability to support plant life and ultimately impacting the food supply for the entire human race.

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